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IPOC - Functional Polymers


C. Dingler, K. Dirnberger, S. Ludwigs, Semiconducting Polymer Spherulites—From Fundamentals to Polymer Electronics, Macromolecular Rapid Comm., 2018, in press.

P. Blanchard, C. Malacrida, C. Cabanetos, J. Roncali, S. Ludwigs, Triphenylamine and Some of  Its Derivatives as Versatile Building Blocks for Organic Electronic Applications, Polymer International 2018, https://doi.org/10.1002/pi.5695.

T. Benincori, S. Gámez-Valenzuela, M. Goll, K. Bruchlos, C. Malacrida, S. Arnaboldi, P. R. Mussini, M. Panigati, J. T. López-Navarrete, M. Carmen Ruiz-Delgado, G. Appoloni, S. Ludwigs, Electrochemical Studies of a New Low-Band Gap Inherently Chiral EDOT-based Oligothiophene, Electrochim. Acta 2018, 284, 513.

A. Ruff, X. Qian, K. Porfyrakis, S. Ludwigs, Effect of the Type and Number of Organic Addends on Fullerene Acceptors for n-Type Electronic Devices: Redox Properties and Energy Levels, Chemistry Select 2018, 3, 5778.
G. Sini, M.l Schubert, C. Risko, S. Roland, O.P. Lee, Z. Chen, T.V. Richter, D. Dolfen, V. Coropceanu, S. Ludwigs, U. Scherf, A. Facchetti, J.M. J. Fréchet, D. Neher, On the Molecular Origin of Charge Separation at the Donor–Acceptor Interface, Adv. Energy Materials 2018, 1702232.

K. Bruchlos, D. Trefz, A. Hamidi-Sakr, M. Brinkmann, J. Heinze, A. Ruff, S. Ludwigs, Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Revisited - Influence of Film deposition on the Electrochemical Behaviour and Energy Levels, Electrochim. Acta, 2018, 269, 299.


P. Reinold, K. Bruchlos, S. Ludwigs, Simultaneous Doping and Crosslinking of Polythiophene Films, Polymer Chemistry 2017, 8, 7351.    

Y.M. Gross, D. Trefz, R. Tkachov, V. Untilova, M. Brinkmann, G.L. Schulz, S. Ludwigs, Tuning Aggregation by Regioregularity in N-Type P(NDI2OD-T2) Donor-Acceptor Copolymers, Macromolecules 50, 2017, 5353.          

R. Merkle, P. Gutbrod, P. Reinold, M. Katzmaier, R. Tkachov, J. Maier, S. Ludwigs, Mixed Conductivity of Polythiophene-based Ionic Polymers under Controlled Conditions, Polymer 134, 2017, 216.        

N. Hoppe, C. Rothe, A. Celik, M.F. Rosa, W. Vogel, D. Widmann, L. Rathgeber, M.C. Ruiz Delgado, B. Villacampa, S. Ludwigs, M. Berroth, Single Waveguide Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulators, Special issue: Kleinheubacher Berichte 2016, Adv. Radio Science 15, 2017, 141.             

A.S. Schenk, S. Eiben, M. Goll, L. Reith, A.N. Kulak, F.C. Meldrum, H. Jeske, C. Wege, S. Ludwigs, Virus-Directed Formation of Electrocatalytically Active Nanoparticle-Based Co3O4 Tubes, Nanoscale 9(19), 2017, 6334.             

G.L. Schulz, F. S. U. Fischer, D. Trefz, A. Melnyk, A. Hamidi-Sakr, M. Brinkmann, D. Andrienko, and S. Ludwigs, The PCPDTBT Family: Correlations between Chemical Structure, Polymorphism, and Device Performance, Macromolecules 50, 2017, 1402.                 

G.L. Schulz, S. Ludwigs, Controlled Crystallization of Conjugated Polymer Films from Solution and Solvent Vapor for Polymer Electronics, Adv. Funct. Mater. 27, 2017, 1603083.        

E. van Hauff, E. da Como, S. Ludwigs, Optoelectronic Properties of PCPDTBT for Photovoltaics: Morphology Control & Molecular Doping, in K. Leo, Ed. Elementary Processes in Organic Photovoltaics, Adv. Polym. Sci. 272, 2017, 109.



D.I. Kutsarov, I. Rasovic, A. Zachariadis, A. Laskarakis, M.A. Lebedeva, K. Porfyrakis, C.A. Mills, M.J. Beliatis, B. Fisher, K. Bruchlos, S. Ludwigs, S. Logothetidis, S.R.P. Silva, Achieving 6.7% Efficiency in P3HT/Indene-C70 Bisadduct Solar Cells through the Control of Vertical Volume Fraction Distribution and Optimized Regio-Isomer Ratios, Adv. Electronic Mater. 2(12) 2016, 1600362.       

M. van den Berg, J. Back, A. Horneber, M. Meixner, K. Swider, S. Ludwigs, D. Zhang, Determination of the Local Morphology within Individual Polymer Domains, Macromolecules 49, 2016, 8219.  

F. Anger, T. Breuer, A. Ruff, M. Klues, A. Gerlach, R. Scholz, S. Ludwigs, G. Witte, F. Schreiber, Enhanced Stability of Rubrene against Oxidation by Partial and Complete Fluorination, J. Phys. Chem. C 120, 2016, 5515.  

L. Liu, P. Eisenbrandt, Th. Roland, M. Polkehn, P.O. Schwartz, K. Bruchlos, B. Omiecienski, S. Ludwigs, N. Leclerc, E. Zaborova, J. Léonard, S. Méry, I. Burghardt, S. Haacke, Controlling Charge Separation and Recombination by Chemical Design in Donor-Acceptor Dyads, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18, 2016, 18536.


M. Scheuble, Y.M. Gross, D. Trefz, M. Brinkmann, J.T. López Navarrete, M.C. Ruiz Delgado, S. Ludwigs, Polythiophenes with Thiophene Side Chain Extensions: Convergent Syntheses and Investigation of Mesoscopic Order,  Macromolecules 48(19), 2015, 7049.     

D. Trefz, A. Ruff, R. Tkachov, M. Wieland, M. Goll, A. Kiriy, S. Ludwigs, Electrochemical Investigations of the N-Type Semiconducting Polymer P(NDI2OD-T2) and Its Monomer: New Insights in the Reduction Behavior, J. Phys. Chem. C 119(40), 2015, 22760.        

Ch. Scharsich, F.S.U. Fischer, K. Wilma, R. Hildner, S. Ludwigs, A. Köhler, Revealing Structure Formation in PCPDTBT by Optical Spectroscopy, J. Polym. Sci. Part B 53, 2015, 1416.       

F.S.U. Fischer, N. Kayunkid, D. Trefz, S. Ludwigs, M. Brinkmann, Structural Models of Poly(cyclopentadithiophene-alt-benzothiadiazole) with Branched Side Chains: Impact of a Single Fluorine Atom on the Crystal Structure and Polymorphism of a Conjugated Polymer, Macromolecules 48, 2015, 3974.    

A. Ruff, E. Heyer, Th. Roland, S. Haacke, R. Ziessel, S. Ludwigs, Electrochemical and Optical Properties of Molecular Triads Based on Triphenylamine, Diketopyrrolopyrrole and Boron-Dipyrromethene, Electrochimica Acta 173, 2015, 847.  

D. Di Nuzzo, D. Viola, F.S.U. Fischer, G. Cerullo, S. Ludwigs, E. Da Como, Enhanced Photogeneration of Polaron Pairs in Neat Semicrystalline Donor-Acceptor Copolymer Films via Direct Excitation of Interchain Aggregates, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 2015, 1196.        

E. Busseron, J.-J. Cid, A. Wolf, G. Du, E. Moulin, G. Fuks, M. Maaloum, P. Polavarapu, A. Ruff, A.-K. Saur, S. Ludwigs, N. Giuseppone, Light-Controlled Morphologies of Self-Assembled Triarylamine-Fullerene Conjugates, ACS Nano 9,

M. Goll, A. Ruff, E. Muks, F. Goerigk, B. Omiecienski, I. Ruff, R.C. González-Cano, J.T. Lopez Navarrete, M.C. Ruiz Delgado, S. Ludwigs, Functionalized Branched EDOT-Terthiophene Copolymer Films by Electropolymerization and Post-Polymerization “Click”-Reactions, Beilstein J. Org. Chem. 11, 2015, 335.  

F.S.U. Fischer, D. Trefz, J. Back, N. Kayunkid, B. Tornow, S. Albrecht, K.G. Yager, G. Singh, A. Karim, D. Neher, M. Brinkmann, S. Ludwigs, Highly Crystalline Films of PCPDTBT with Branched Side Chains by Solvent Vapor Crystallization: Influence on Opto-Electronic Properties, Adv. Mater. 27, 2015, 1223. 

M. Scheuble, M. Goll, S. Ludwigs, Branched Terthiophenes in Organic Electronics: From Small Molecules to Polymers, Macromol. Rapid Commun. 36, 2015, 115.


S. Ludwigs, Editor, P3HT revisited - from Molecular Scale to Solar Cell Devices, Adv. Polym. Sci., Springer, Heidelberg, 2014.     

K. Tremel and S. Ludwigs, Morphology of P3HT in Thin Films in Relation to Optical and Electrical Properties, Adv. Polym. Sci. 265, 2014, 39.     

T. Roland, E. Heyer, L. Liu, A. Ruff, S. Ludwigs, R. Ziessel, S. Haacke, A Detailed Analysis of Multiple Photoreactions in a Light-Harvesting Molecular Triad with Overlapping Spectra by Ultrafast Spectroscopy, J. Phys. Chem. C, 118, 2014, 24290.   

M. Scheuble, T.V. Richter, M. Goll, S. Link, J.T. López Navarrete, A. Ruff, M. C. Ruiz Delgado, and S. Ludwigs, Branched Polythiophenes by Ni-Catalyzed Kumada Coupling, Polymer Chemistry, 5, 2014, 6824.     

L. Biniek, S. Pouget, D. Djurado, E. Gonthier, K. Tremel, N. Kayunkid, E. Zaborova, N. Crespo-Monteiro, O. Boyron, N. Leclerc, S. Ludwigs and M. Brinkmann, High-temperature Rubbing: A Versatile Method to Align π-conjugated Polymers Without Alignment Substrate, Macromolecules, 47, 2014, 3871.      

T. Erdmann, J. Back, R. Tkachov, A. Ruff, B. Voit, S. Ludwigs, A. Kiriy, Dithienosilole-Based All-Conjugated Block Copolymers Synthesized by a Combination of Quasi-Living Kumada and Negishi Catalyst-Transfer Polycondensations, Polymer Chemistry, 5, 2014, 5383.  

K. Tremel, F.S.U. Fischer, N. Kayunkid, R. Di Pietro, R. Tkachov, A. Kiriy, D. Neher, S. Ludwigs, M. Brinkmann, Charge Transport Anisotropy in Highly Oriented Thin Films of the Acceptor Polymer P(NDI2OD-T2), Adv. Energy Mater. 2014, 1301659.      

S. Albrecht, K. Vandewal, J.R. Tumbleston, F.S.U. Fischer, J.D. Douglas, J.M.J. Fréchet, S. Ludwigs, H. Ade, A. Salleo, D. Neher, On the Efficiency of Charge Transfer State Splitting in Polymer: Fullerene Solar Cells, Adv. Mater., 26, 2014, 2533.


S. Link, M. Scheuble, M. Goll, E. Muks, A. Ruff, A. Hoffmann, T. Richter, J.T. López Navarrete, M.C. Ruiz Delgado, S. Ludwigs, Electropolymerized 3D Randomly Branched EDOT Containing Copolymers, Langmuir, 29, 2013, 15463.  

V. Gernigon, P. Lévêque, F. Richard, N. Leclerc, C. Brochon, C.H. Braun, S. Ludwigs, D.V. Anokhin, D.A. Ivanov, G. Hadziioannou, T. Heiser, Microstructure and Optoelectronic Properties of P3HT-b-P4VP/PCBM Blends: Impact of PCBM on the Copolymer Self-Assembly, Macromolecules, 46, 2013, 8824.  

F.S.U. Fischer, K. Tremel, A.-K. Saur, S. Link, M. Brinkmann, J.T. López Navarrete, M.C. Ruiz Delgado, S. Ludwigs, Influence of Processing Solvents on Optical Properties and Morphology of a Semicrystalline Low Bandgap Polymer in the Neutral and Charged States, Macromolecules 46, 2013, 4924.

P. Staffeld, M. Kaller, S. J. Beardsworth, K. Tremel, S. Ludwigs, S. Laschat, F. Giesselmann, Design of Conductive Crown Ether Based Columnar Liquid Crystals: Impact of Molecular Flexibility and Geometry, J. Mater. Chem. C, 1, 2013, 892.


M. Brinkmann, E. Gonthier, S. Bogen, K. Tremel, S. Ludwigs, M. Hufnagel, M. Sommer, Segregated Versus Mixed Interchain Stacking in Highly Oriented Films of Naphthalene Bisimide Bithiophene Copolymers, ACS Nano, 6(11), 2012, 10319-10326            

T.V. Richter, C.H. Braun, S. Link, M. Scheuble, E.J.W. Crossland, F. Stelzl, U. Würfel, S. Ludwigs, Regioregular Polythiophenes With Alkylthiophene Side Chains, Macromolecules, 45, 2012, 5782.

F. F. Stelzl, J. Schulz-Gericke, E. Crossland, S. Ludwigs, U. Würfel, Voltage-induced Formation of Accumulation Layers at Electrode Interfaces in Organic Solar Cells, Adv. Energy Mater. 2, 2012, 983.     

F.S.U. Fischer, K. Tremel, M. Sommer, E.J.W. Crossland, S. Ludwigs, Directed Crystallization of Poly(3-hexylthiophene) in Micrometer Channels under Confinement and in Electric Fields, Nanoscale, 4, 2012, 2138.  

T.V. Richter, C. Bühler, S. Ludwigs, Water and Ionic-liquid Soluble Branched Polythiophenes Bearing Anionic and Cationic Moieties, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 2012, 43.     

E.J.W. Crossland, K. Tremel, F. Fischer, K. Rahimi, G. Reiter, U. Steiner, S. Ludwigs, Anisotropic Charge Transport in Spherulitic Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Films, Adv. Mater. 24, 2012, 839.  

H.S. Mangold, T.V. Richter, S. Link, U. Würfel, S. Ludwigs, Optoelectronic Properties of Hyperbranched Polythiophenes, J. Phys. Chem. B, 116, 2012, 154.        

T. Roland, J. Léonard, G. Hernandez Ramirez, S. Méry, O. Yurchenko, S. Ludwigs, S. Haacke, Sub-100 fs Charge Transfer in a Novel Donor–acceptor–donor Triad Organized in a Smectic Film, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 14, 2012, 273.

O. Yurchenko, D. Freytag, L. zur Borg, R. Zentel, J. Heinze,S. Ludwigs, Electrochemically Induced Reversible and Irreversible Coupling of Triarylamines, J. Phys. Chem. B, 116, 2012, 30.


L. Hartmann, K. Tremel, S. Uttiya, E. Crossland, S. Ludwigs, N. Kyunkid, C. Vergnat, M. Brinkmann,  2D Versus 3D Crystalline Order in Thin Films of Regioregular Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Oriented by Mechanical Rubbing and Epitaxy, Adv. Funct. Mater. 21, 2011, 4047.       

S. T. Turner, P. Pingel, R. Steryrleuthner, E. J. W. Crossland, S. Ludwigs, D. Neher, Quantitative Analysis of Bulk Heterojunction Films Using Linear Absorption Spectroscopy and Solar Cell Performance, Adv. Funct. Mater. 21, 2011, 4640.       

C. H. Braun, B. Schöpf, C. Ngov, C. Brochon, G. Hadziioannou, E.J.W. Crossland, S. Ludwigs, Synthesis and Thin Film Phase Behavior of Functional Rod-coil Block Copolymers Based on Poly(para Phenylene vinylene) and Poly(lactic Acid), Macromol. Rapid Commun. 32, 2011, 813.  

E.J.W. Crossland, K. Rahimi, G. Reiter, U. Steiner, S. Ludwigs, Control of Nucleation Density in Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Thin Films, Adv. Funct. Mater. 21, 2011, 518.

E. Crossland, P. Cunha, S. Ludwigs, M. A. Hillmyer, U. Steiner, In Situ Electrochemical Monitoring of Selective Etching In Ordered Mesoporous Block-copolymer Templates, Appl. Mater. Interf. 3, 2011, 1375.


S. Link, T.V. Richter, O. Yurchenko, J. Heinze, S. Ludwigs, Electrochemical Behavior of Electropolymerized and Chemically Synthesized Hyperbranched Polythiophenes, J. Phys. Chem. B 114, 2010, 10703.

O. Yurchenko, J. Heinze, S. Ludwigs, Electrochemically Induced Formation of Independent Conductivity Regimes in Polymeric Tetraphenylbenzidine Systems, Chem. Phys. Chem. 11, 2010, 1637.

J. Heinze, B. Frontana-Uribe, S. Ludwigs, The Electrochemistry of Conducting Polymers. Persistent Models, New Concepts, Chemical Reviews 110, 2010, 4724.

T.V. Richter, F. Stelzl, J. Schulz-Gericke, B. Kerscher, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, S. Ludwigs, Room-temperature Vacuum-induced Ligand Removal and Patterning of ZnO Nanoparticles: From Semiconducting Films Towards Printed Electronics, J. Mater. Chem. 20, 2010, 874.

E.J.W. Crossland, S. Scroggins, S. Moratti, O. Yurchenko, U. Steiner, M. Hillmyer, S. Ludwigs, Soft-etch Mesoporous Hole-conducting Block Copolymer Templates, ACS Nano. 4, 2010, 962.

E.J.W. Crossland, S. Ludwigs, M. Hillmyer, U. Steiner, Control of Gyroid-forming Block Copolymer Templates: Effects of an Electric Field and Surface Roughness, Soft Matter. 6, 2010, 670.

C.H. Braun, T.V. Richter, F. Schacher, A.H.E. Müller, E.J.W. Crossland, S. Ludwigs, Block Copolymer Micellar Nanoreactors for the Directed Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles, Macromol. Rapid Commun. 31, 2010, 729.


A. Finnemore, M.R.J. Scherer, R. Langford, S. Mahajan, S. Ludwigs, F.C. Meldrum, U. Steiner, Nanostructured Calcite Single Crystals with Gyroid Morphologies, Adv. Mater. 21, 2009, 3928, Cover picture.

T.V. Richter, S. Link, R. Hanselmann, S. Ludwigs, Design of Soluble Hyperbranched Polythiophenes with Tailor-made Optoelectronic Properties, Macromol. Rapid Commun. 30, 2009, 1323.

T.V. Richter, F. Schüler, R. Thomann, R. Mülhaupt, S. Ludwigs, Nanocomposites of Size-tunable ZnO-nanoparticles and Amphiphilic Hyperbranched Polymers, Macromol. Rapid Commun. 30, 2009, 579.

E.J.W. Crossland, M. Kamperman, M. Nedelcu, C. Ducati, U. Wiesner, D.M. Smilgies, G.E.S. Toombes, M. Hillmyer, S. Ludwigs, U. Steiner, H. Snaith, A Bicontinuous Double Gyroid Dye-sensitized Solar Cell, Nano Lett. 9, 2009, 2807, Cover picture.

E.J.W. Crossland, M. Nedelcu, C. Ducati, S. Ludwigs, M. Hillmyer, U. Steiner, H. Snaith, Block Copolymer Morphologies in Dye-sensitized Solar Cells: Probing the Photovoltaic Structure-function Relation, Nano Lett. 9, 2009, 2813.

S. Ludwigs , From Nanostructured Block Copolymer Templates Towards Hybrid Solar Cells, Macromol. Biosci. 9, 2009, F35.


N.E. Voicu, S. Ludwigs, U. Steiner, Alignment of Lamellar Block Copolymers via Electrohydrodynamically-driven Micropatterning, Adv. Mater. 20, 2008 , 3022.

S. Ludwigs , N. E. Voicu, E. J. W. Crossland, U. Steiner, Patterning of Polymer Films with Novel Soft-Lithographic Techniques, Macromol. Rapid Commun. 29, 2008, F59.

until 2007

N.E. Voicu, S. Ludwigs, E.J.W. Crossland, P. Andrew, U. Steiner, Solvent-vapor Assisted Imprint Lithography, Adv. Mater. 19, 2007, 757.

E.J.W. Crossland, S. Ludwigs, M. Hillmyer, U. Steiner, Freestanding Nanowire Arrays from Soft-etch Block Copolymer Templates, Soft Matter 3, 2007, 94.

F.C. Meldrum, S. Ludwigs, Template-directed Control of Crystal Morphologies, Macromol. Biosci. 7, 2007, 152. 

S. Ludwigs, U. Steiner, R. Lam, A. Kulak, F.C. Meldrum, Bioinspired Polymer-inorganic Hybrid Materials, Adv. Mater. 18, 2006, 2270.

S. Ludwigs; U. Steiner; R. Lam; A. Kulak; F.C. Meldrum, Biomimetic Polymer-inorganic Hybrid Materials, Macromol. Biosci. 6, 2006, F57. 

S. Ludwigs, G. Krausch, G. Reiter, M. Losik, M. Antonietti, H. Schlaad, Structure Formation of Poly(styrene)-block-poly( g -benzyl-L-glutamate) in Thin Films, Macromolecules 38(18), 2005, 7532.

S. Ludwigs, K. Schmidt, G. Krausch, One-dimensional Swelling of a pH-dependent Nanostructure Based on ABC Triblock Terpolymers, Macromolecules 38(6), 2005, 2376.

S. Ludwigs, K. Schmidt, C.M. Stafford, M. Fasolka, A. Karim, E. Amis, R. Magerle, G. Krausch, Combinatorial Mapping of the Phase Behavior of ABC Triblock Terpolymers in Thin Films: Experiments, Macromolecules 38(5), 2005, 1850.

S. Ludwigs, A.V. Zvelindovsky, G.J.A. Sevink, G. Krausch, R. Magerle, Phase behavior of ABC Triblock Terpolymers in Thin Films: Simulations, Macromolecules 38(5), 2005, 1859.

S. Ludwigs; G. Krausch; G. Reiter; M. Losik; H. Schlaad, Structure Formation of Poly(styrene)-block-poly(g-benzyl-L-glutamate) Diblock Copolymers in Thin Films, Macromol. Rapid. Comm. 26 (3), 2005, F56.

S. Ludwigs, A. Böker, A. Voronov, N. Rehse, R. Magerle, G. Krausch, Self-assembly of Functional Nanostructures from ABC Triblock Copolymers, Nature Mater. 2(11), 2003, 744.
S. Ludwigs, A. Böker, V. Abetz, A.H.E. Müller, G. Krausch, Phase behavior of Linear Poly(styrene)-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-poly(tert-butyl methacrylate) Triblock Terpolymers, Polymer 44(22), 2003, 6815.
S. Ludwigs, A. Voronov, H. Elbs, N. Rehse, A. Knoll, A. Horvat, L. Tsarkova, R. Magerle, G. Krausch, Selbstorganisation von ABA und ABC Dreiblockcopolymeren in Dünnen Filmen, Macr. Chem. Phys. 2003, 2004, F19.
A. Böker, H. Elbs, H. Hänsel, A. Knoll, S. Ludwigs, H. Zettl, A.V. Zvelindovsky, G.J.A. Sevink, V. Urban, V. Abetz, A.H.E. Müller, G. Krausch, Electric Field Induced Alignment of Concentrated Block Copolymer Solutions, Macromolecules 36, 2003, 8078.
A. Böker, H. Elbs, H. Hänsel, A. Knoll, S. Ludwigs, H. Zettl, V. Urban, V. Abetz, A.H.E. Müller, G. Krausch, Microscopic Mechanisms of Electric-field Induced Alignment of Block Copolymer Microdomains, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 2002, 1319.
S. Ludwigs, A. Böker, V. Abetz, A.H.E. Müller, G. Krausch, Self-assembly of Poly(styrene)-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-poly(tert-butyl Methacrylate) Triblock Copolymers in Bulk and in Thin Films, Polym. Prepr., Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Polym. Chem. 43(2), 2002, 377.
A. Böker, H. Elbs, H. Hänsel, A. Knoll, S. Ludwigs, H. Zettl, V. Urban, V. Abetz, A.H.E. Müller, G. Krausch, Macroscopic Alignment of Concentrated Block Copolymer Solutions in Electric Fields, Polym. Prepr., Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Polym. Chem. 43(2), 2002, 350.